The Dreaded Four Month Sleep Regression
As a professional sleep consultant, I hear the term “regression” used in regard to just about every imaginable circumstance. Essentially, if baby doesn’t sleep well for a couple of nights, parents start referencing the “regression” word. Some people subscribe to the idea that there is an eight-month regression, a nine-month regression, a one-year regression, as well as teething regressions, growth spurt regressions, and so on. Others see these as simple hiccups caused by extenuating circumstances.
But the four-month regression, everybody agrees on, and for good reason. It’s the real deal, and it’s permanent.
So, in order to understand what is happening to your baby during this stage, first you need to know a few things about sleep in general. So here is the science of sleep part, told in plain English.
Many of us just think of sleep as an on-or-off situation. You are either asleep or you are not. But sleep actually has a number of different stages, and they make up the “sleep cycle,” which we go through several times a night.
Stage 1 is that initial stage we are all familiar with where you can just feel yourself drifting off, but don’t really feel like you have fallen asleep. Anyone who has ever seen their partner nodding off in front of the TV, told them to go to bed, and got the canned response of, “I wasn't sleeping!” knows exactly what this looks like.
Stage 2 is considered the first “true sleep” stage. This is where people tend to realize, once woken up, that they actually were sleeping. For anyone taking a “power nap,” this is as deep as you want to go, or else you are going to wake up groggy.
Stage 3 is deep and regenerative. Also known as “slow wave” sleep, this is where the body starts repairing and rejuvenating the immune system, muscles tissue, energy stores, and sparks growth and development.
Stage 4 is REM (rapid eye movement) sleep. This is where the brain starts to kick in and consolidates information and memories from the day before. It is also the stage where we do most of our dreaming.
Once we have gone through all of the stages of sleep, we either wake up or come close to waking up, and then start over again until the alarm goes off.
So what does this have to do with the dreaded four-month sleep regression we were talking about originally?
Well, newborn babies only have two stages of sleep; Stage 3 and Stage 4 (REM), and they spend about half their sleep in each stage. But at around the third or fourth month of life, there is a reorganization of sleep, as they embrace the 4-Stage method of sleep that they will continue to follow for the rest of their lives.
When this change takes place, baby moves from 50% REM sleep to 25% in order to make room for Stage 1 and Stage 2 sleep. So although REM sleep is light, it’s not as light as these two new stages that they are getting used to, and with more time spent in lighter sleep, there’s more of a chance that baby is going to wake up!
Now that’s not to say that we want to prevent or avoid baby waking up. Waking up is absolutely natural, and we continue to wake up three, four, five times a night into adulthood and even more into old age.
As adults, however, we are able to identify certain comforting truths that baby might not be privy to. When we wake in the night, we are able to recognize that, “Hey, I’m here in my bed, it is still nighttime, my alarm isn’t going to go off for another three hours- I can go back to sleep.”
And we do. Usually so quickly that, the next morning, we don’t even remember the brief encounter with consciousness.
A four month-old baby, of course, lacks these critical thinking skills. To a four month-old baby who fell asleep at her mother’s breast, the reasoning could go much more to the tune of, “OK, last thing I remember was that familiar, beloved face, I was having dinner, she was singing me a soothing song and I was warm and cozy. Now I’m alone in this dark room and there’s no food.”
That’s probably an exaggeration, but who knows what goes on in the mind of a four month-old baby?
Anyways, now that baby has suddenly realized that her Momma’s not around, and she’s not entirely sure where she went, the natural response is to do a little freaking out. That stimulates the fight-or-flight response and, next thing you know, baby’s not going back to sleep without a significant amount of reassurance that everything is OK.
The other major contributor to this 4 month fiasco, I find, is that up until this point, parents have either been putting their baby to sleep with a pacifier, or by rocking them, or by breastfeeding them, or some similar technique where baby is helped along on the road to falling asleep.
Now that baby is spending more time in light sleep, and therefore has a higher probability of waking up, this suddenly becomes a much bigger issue. These sleep props or sleep associations can be very sneaky indeed, because although they may be helpful in getting your little one to that initial nodding off stage, the lack of them when they wake up means that baby is not able to get back to sleep again without some outside help. Cue the fight-or-flight, the crying, and the adrenaline. When this starts happening every half an hour, parents can find themselves in a nightmarish situation.
So, the good news for anyone experiencing the dreaded Four Month Sleep Regression is that it’s not, in fact, a regression at all. A regression is defined as “reversion to an earlier mental or behavioral level,” and that’s actually the opposite of what your baby is experiencing. This would be much more aptly titled the “Four Month Sleep Progression”.
So, onto the big question. What can you do to help your little one adjust?
First off, get all of that light out of baby’s room. I’m not kidding around here. You might think that baby’s room is dark enough, or that baby might not like the dark, and that it’s comforting to have a little bit of light coming through the windows or seeping in from the hallway.
Baby’s room should be dark. I mean coal mine dark. Tape garbage bags over the windows if you have to, or cover them with tinfoil. (Warning: you may get suspicious looks from your neighbors!)
Newborns and infants are not afraid of the dark. They are, however, responsive to light. Light tells their brains that it is time for activity and alertness, and the brain secretes hormones accordingly, so we want to keep that nursery absolutely pitch black during naps and bedtime.
The other nemesis of daytime sleep, (and nighttime for that matter, although not nearly as often) is noise. Whether its UPS ringing the doorbell, the dog barking, or something falling on the floor three rooms away. With baby spending more time in lighter sleep, noises will startle them easily and wake them up, so a white noise machine is a great addition to your nursery.
“Wait, isn’t that a prop?,” you’re asking. Well, in a way, it is, but it doesn’t require any winding, resetting, reinserting, or parental presence. It’s just there and it can be on as long as baby is sleeping, so it’s not a prop we need to avoid.
Bedtime routines are also an essential component to getting your baby sleeping well. Try to keep the routine to about 4 or 5 steps, and don’t end it with a feed. Otherwise, you risk baby nodding off at the breast or the bottle, and that will create the dreaded “association” that we talked about earlier.
Try to keep the feed near the beginning of the routine and plan the songs, stories, and getting into PJs towards the end. The whole process should be about 20 - 30 minutes long, and baby should go into their crib while they’re still awake.
If you are noticing baby getting fussy before bedtime, you’ve probably waited too long. Four month old babies should really only be going about two hours between snoozes, and bedtime should be between 7 and 8 PM at night.
Now, there are going to be regressions, actual regressions, later on in your little one’s youth. Traveling, illness, cutting teeth, all of these things can cause your little one to have a few bad nights in a row. But when it comes to the four month “progression,” I’m happy to report that this is a one-time thing. Once you are through this, your baby will have officially moved into the sleep cycle that they will essentially be following for the rest of their life. Four glorious stages repeated multiple times a night.
And by taking this opportunity to teach them the skills they need to string those sleep cycles together, independently, prop-free, without any need for nursing, rocking, or pacifiers, you will have given them a gift that they’ll enjoy for the rest of their young lives.
Of course, some kids are going to take to this process like a fish to water, and some are going to be a little more resistant. If yours falls into the former category, count yourself as lucky, take delight in your success, and go ahead and gloat about it on Facebook.
For those of you in the latter camp, I’m happy to help in any way I can. Just visit our website or give us a call and we can work on a more personalized program for your little one. The most common thing I hear after working with clients is, “I can’t believe I waited so long to get some help!” We offer a free 15 minute evaluation to get to know the specifics about your little one’s situation, so book a call now and we can move forward as soon as you’re ready to get your little one sleeping through the night!